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APA style

Note! The current APA Citation Guide and all the examples included in it, reflect the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The guide is scheduled to be updated to reflect the recently published 7th edition later in the year. 

APA citations appear in two places in a research paper: in the body of the paper, as in-text citations, and at the end of the paper, as references to books, articles, or any other type of source you have used in your paper.

Citing in the reference list

A reference is a detailed description of an information source from which you quoted, summarized, or paraphrased an idea. It provides the author, the publication date, the title, and the publication information of the source. However, there are slight differences in the way these elements are presented depending on the type of source, (i.e., book, article, etc.). Each work that appears in the references of your paper should also be cited in the text.

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of book you want to cite or its special characteristics and find out how you should form the reference.

When you cite a book, begin the entry providing the last name(s) and initials of the author(s). Then give the year of publication. Continue with the title of the book italicized. If the book is online, conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, provide the homepage URL of the book. If the book is in print form, conclude the entry with the publication place and the publisher.

Online with DOI

Online without DOI
Print without DOI

If the book has an edition statement, this should be mentioned in parentheses next to the title. E.g., Technology & the future (10th ed.). Notice that the edition statement should not be italicized.

When you cite a book chapter, begin the entry with the author(s) of the chapter and the year of publication of the book. Then, provide the title of the chapter. Continue with the editor's name accompanied by the abbreviation Ed. in parentheses. Provide the title of the book italicized, followed by the volume (if any) and the page numbers of the chapter. If the book is online, conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, provide the homepage URL of the book. If the chapter is from a print book, conclude the entry with the publication place and the publisher.

Online with DOI

Online without DOI
Print without DOI

Treat encyclopedic entries as chapters in edited books.

When you cite a book, which is part of a series, begin the entry with the last name and initials of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. Continue with the series title and the volume number (if any). Then provide the title of the book. If the book is online, conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, provide the homepage URL of the book. If the book is in print form, conclude the entry with the publication place and the publisher.

Print without DOI

When you cite a translated book, begin the entry with the last name and initials of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. Then give the title of the book italicized followed by parentheses including the translator's name accompanied by the indication Trans. If the book is online, conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, provide the homepage URL of the book. If the book is in print form, conclude the entry with the publication place and the publisher.

Print without DOI

When you cite a book in a non-Latin language, you should treat it like any other book. However, the reference must be transliterated into the English alphabet. The transliterated title of the source should be followed by the title translated in English and enclosed in brackets.

Print without DOI

Consult the Chicago Manual of Style available at JSB Library or the ALA-LC Romanization Tables to Romanize terms in a particular language.

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of article you want to cite or its special characteristics and find out how you should form the reference.

When you cite a journal article, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s), followed by the year of publication. Provide the title of the article. Continue with the title of the journal followed by the volume number italicized. Then, provide the issue number (when journal pagination is not continuous) and the inclusive pages. If the article is online, conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, provide the URL of the journal's homepage.

Online with DOI

Online without DOI
Print without DOI
When you cite a magazine article, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. Then provide the title of the article. Continue with the title of the magazine followed by the volume and issue number and the inclusive pages (if available). If the article is online, conclude the entry with the URL of the magazine's homepage. Note that magazine articles have no DOI assigned.

Online

Print
When you cite a newspaper article, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. Then provide the title of the article. Continue with the title of the newspaper followed by the abbreviation p. or pp. and the inclusive pages (if available). If the newspaper is online, conclude the entry with the URL of the newspaper's homepage. Note that newspaper articles have no DOI assigned.

Online

Print
Note!
If your article appears on discontinous pages, provide all page numbers separating them with a comma (e.g., pp. A4, A6, A9-A10).
When you cite a working paper, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. Continue with the title of the working paper italicized. Add the working paper number (if available) in parentheses next to the title. Conclude the entry with the URL of the database's homepage.

Online

When you cite an article in a non-Latin language, you should treat it like any article. However, the reference must be transliterated into the English alphabet. The transliterated titles of the article and the journal should also be followed by the titles translated in English and enclosed in brackets.

Online

Note!
Consult the Chicago Manual of Style available at JSB Library or the ALA-LC Romanization Tables to Romanize terms in a particular language.

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of source you want to cite and find out how you should form the citation.

When you cite a work on a website, begin the entry with the last name and initials of the author(s) followed by the publication date of the work. Continue with the title of the work. Conclude the entry with the URL of the website.
Note!
If you need to cite an entire website, you just need to provide the address of the site in your text. The source does not need to be cited in the References.
When you cite a report begin the entry with the author of the report and the year of publication. Continue with the title of the report. Add the report's number, if available, next to the title. If the report's the publisher is also stated as the author, conclude the entry with the statement "Retrieved from" and the URL of the publisher's homepage. If the report's the publisher is not stated as the author, then conclude the entry with the statement "Retrieved from" including the publisher and the URL of the source.

Online with publisher as author

Online with publisher & author
When you cite a conference paper abstract, begin the entry with the last name and initials of the author(s) followed by the date of the conference. Continue with the title of the conference paper, followed by the statement Paper presented at the and the conference name as well as where it took place. Conclude the entry with the DOI. If no DOI is available, conclude the entry with the statement Abstract retrieved from followed by the URL of the source.

Online

When you cite a dissertation found on the web, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. Continue with the title of the dissertation italicized followed by the phrase Unpublished doctoral dissertation or Unpublished master’s thesis in parentheses, the name of the degree-granting institution, and its location. Conclude the entry with the statement Retrieved from followed by the URL of the source.

Online

When you cite a dissertation abstract, begin the entry with the last name(s) and initials of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. Continue with the title of the dissertation. Proceed with the index or periodical, the volume and the page number, where the abstract is listed. Conclude with the statement Abstract retrieved from followed by the name of the database and the accession number of the abstract.

Online

When you cite a blog post, begin the entry with the last name and initials (or the screen name, if the real name is unavailable) of the person who posts the information, followed by the publication date of the posting. Continue with the title of the blog post (i.e., the subject line/thread) accompanied by the indication Web log post in brackets. Conclude the entry with the URL of the blog post.
When you cite a podcast, provide the last name(s) and initials of the producer(s) followed by the indication Producer in parentheses. Then provide the publication date of the podcast. Continue with the title of the podcast accompanied by the indication Audio podcast in brackets. Conclude the entry with the URL of the podcast.

Audio

A personal interview conducted by the researcher is a personal communication. This is why it is cited only in the body of the paper (see Citing in the text examples). However, if the demands of the course require from you to cite the personal interview in the reference list, use one of the examples that follow.

Personal

When you cite a film, begin the entry with the primary contributors, the producer or writer and the director. Continue with the release date of the film and the title of the film. If the film is available from an online service, conclude the entry with the statement Retrieved from followed by the URL of the online service. If the film is available in any kind of medium, conclude the entry with the medium of recording in brackets followed by the country and the studio, by which the film was produced.

Online

DVD
When you cite a video, begin the entry with the producer's name. The person who posted the video can also be credited as the producer. Continue with the date of publication. Provide the title of the video in italics followed by the indication Video file in brackets. Conclude the entry with the URL of the source.

Online

Note!
If you consider it necessary, you may place the lecturer's or presenter's name in the producer's position and move the producer's name in the brackets, e.g.: [Video file produced by APA Help Center].
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