APA citations appear in two places in a research paper: in the body of the paper, as in-text citations, and at the end of the paper, as references to books, articles, or any other type of source you have used in your paper.
An in-text citation is a brief description, which includes the last name of the author and the publication date of the source. It shows that you are using someone else's ideas or words in your paper. There are two ways to present citations in the text. You can either introduce the last name of the author and the date in the flow of the sentence, or include both of them in parentheses at the end of the sentence. An in-text citation should link your audience to a detailed reference at the end of your paper.
Click on a collapsible panel to see examples based on the special characteristics of the source you are citing, and find out how you should form your in-text citations.
Bowlby (1991) formulated the basic principles of the attachment theory.
The infant should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (Bowlby, 1991).
Vincent and Neis (2011) explored the relationship between parental work schedules and child academic achievement.
Parental work schedules might exert an impact on child academic achievement (Vincent & Neis, 2011).
Gwee, Teh, and Huang (2010) associated anorexia nervosa with . . .
Gwee et al. (2010) presented a case report . . .
Anorexia nervosa is associated with . . . (Gwee, Teh, & Huang, 2010)
Pancreatitis is one of the conditions related to anorexia nervosa . . . (Gwee et al., 2010)
Jensen et al. (2012) examined the CBSM intervention on indicators of positive psychological well-being of HIV-positive racial minority women.
Research suggests that CBSM affects the psychological well-being of HIV-positive racial minority women (Jensen et al., 2012).
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003) estimates that around 30,000 people die by suicide each year in the United States.
According to the NIMH (2003), American Indians and Alaska Natives tend to have the highest rate of suicides.
The report estimates that around 30,000 people die by suicide each year in the United States (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003).
American Indians and Alaska Natives tend to have the highest rate of suicides (NIMH, 2003).
In subsequent citations, abbreviate the name of the group if it is long and the abbreviation is familiar or easily recognizable. However, when the name is short or not obvious to understand, write it out every time it occurs.
Groups that serve as authors can be corporations, government agencies, associations, and study groups.
As stated in article "September 11 attack" (2012), a large number of firefighters rushed to the World Trade Center minutes after the first plane struck the north tower.
A large number of firefighters rushed to the World Trade Center minutes after the first plane struck the north tower ("September 11 attack," 2012).
When the work's author is designated as anonymous, use the word Anonymous instead of a name, followed by a comma and the date of publication. E.g., (Anonymous, 2008).
Breivik and Senn (1998) state that "teacher resistance to change is not unusual" (p. 107).
"Teacher resistance to change is not unusual" (Breivik & Senn, 1998, p. 107).
Hilyer (2008) suggested that there are four steps to be followed in the preparation of an effective learner-centered presentation (Chapter 5).
There are four steps to be followed in the preparation of an effective learner-centered presentation (Hilyer, 2008, Chapter 5).
The word page is always abbreviated (i.e., p.), but the word chapter is not.
One of the difficulties encountered during the weeding process is . . . (Hoffman & Wood, 2005; Slote, 1997).
The U.S. needs complete withdrawal from Iraq to fix its Arab relations (Cole, 2011, 2012).
Social activity and emotional control helped predict academic performance and retention (Robbins, 2010a, 2010b).
Chen and Ullen suggest that "international students' work should be treated differently" . . . (as cited in Lund, 2011, p.15).
In the reference list, provide the bibliographic information of the secondary source.
M. Phelps (personal communication, June 13, 2013)
(M. Phelps, personal communication, June 13, 2013)