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MLA Style

MLA citations appear in two places in a research paper in the body of the paper as in-text citations and at the end of the paper as references to books, articles, or any other type of source you have used in your paper.

Citing in the works cited list

A works cited entry is a detailed description of an information source from which you quoted, summarized or paraphrazed an idea. It provides the author, the title, and the publication information of the source. However, there are slight differences in the way these elements are presented depending on the type of source, (i.e. book, article, etc.). Each work that appears in the works cited list of your paper should also be cited in the text.

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of book you want to cite or its special characteristics and find out how you should form the works cited entry.

When you cite a book begin the entry with the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the book italicized. Provide the publisher and the publication date of the source.

If you accessed the book from the library's online databases or the web, provide the name of the database/website, in which the book is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry with the doi or the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the book can be located.


Online database with DOI

Online database without DOI
Online web with DOI
Online web without DOI
Print format
When a book indicates that it has been released in more than one editions such as Expanded ed., Updated ed., and xth ed., provide the edition statement just after the book title followed by comma e.g. Technology & the Future. 10th ed.,
When you cite a chapter from an edited book, begin the entry with the name of the author of the chapter reversed for alphabetizing. Continue providing and title of the chapter in quotation marks. Proceed with the title of the book italicized. Add the phrase "edited by" and provide the editor's name in normal order. Provide the publisher and the publication date of the book followed by the inclusive page numbers of the chapter (if any).

If you accessed the book from the library's online databases or the web provide the name of the database/website, in which the book is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry with the doi or the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the book can be located.


Online database with DOI
Online database without DOI
Online web with DOI
Online web without DOI
Print format
When you cite an article or entry from a reference book, begin the entry with the name of the author of the article/entry reversed for alphabetizing. Continue providing and title of the article/entry in quotation marks. Proceed with the title of the book italicized. Add the phrase "edited by" and provide the editor's name in normal order. Provide the publisher and the publication date of the book followed by the inclusive page numbers of the article/entry (if any).

If you accessed the encylopedia from the library's online databases or the web provide the name of the database/website, in which the book is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry with the doi or the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the book can be located.


Online database with DOI
Online database without DOI
Online web with DOI
Online web without DOI
Print format
When you cite a book, which is translated, begin the entry providing the author's name reversed for alphabetizing, if you refer primarily to the work itself. However, if your citations are based mostly on the translators comments or wording begin the entry with the translator's name followed by the descriptive label "translator" and give the author's name after the title of the book. Continue by giving the title of the book italicized. Provide the publisher and the publication date of the source.

If you accessed the book from the library's online databases or the web provide the name of the database/website, in which the book is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry providing the doi or the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the book can be located.


Print format
When you cite a comic book begin the entry providing the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Continue providing the book title italicized followed by the issue number. If the comic book is published under a series title, then this element should be provided after the comic title italicized followed by the issue number. Provide the publisher and the publication date of the comic.

If you accessed the book from the library's online databases or the web provide the name of the database/website, in which the book is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry providing the doi or the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the book can be located.


Print format
When you cite a book written in a non Latin language like Greek, Chinese, Asian languages etc., provide the author's name romanized and reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the work italicized. Present the title of the work in the language that has been originally written or romanize it. Place a translated version of the title into a parenthesis next to the original title of the book. Conclude the entry with the name of the publisher in the originally written language or romanized. Add the official English version of the publisher's name in a parenthesis, if any, and finish with the publication date of the book.
Print format
Consult The Chicago Manual of Style available at JSB Library or the ALA-LC Romanization Tables to romanize terms in a particular language.

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of article you want to cite or its special characteristics and find out how you should form the reference.

When you cite a journal article, begin the entry with the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the article in quotation marks. Give the title of the periodical italicized followed by volume and issue numbers (if any), the publication date, and the inclusive pages (if any).
If you accessed the article from the library's online databases or the web provide the title of database/website, italicized. Notice that when the periodical's name is the same with the website it can be omitted from the citation.
If the article has a doi conclude the entry with the doi where the article can be located. If the article doesn't have a doi, conclude the entry with the URL stable or permalink, if available) where the article can be located.
Online database with DOI
Online database without DOI
Online web with DOI
Online web without DOI
Print format without DOI
When you cite a magazine article begin the entry with the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the article in quotation marks. Provide the title of the magazine italicized, followed by the volume and issue numbers (if any), the publication date and the inclusive pages (if any).
If you accessed the article from the library's online databases or the web, provide the title of the database/website, where the periodical is contained, italicized. Conclude the entry with the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the article can be located.
Online database
Online web
Print format
When you cite a newspaper article begin the entry with the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the article in quotation marks. Provide the title of the newspaper italicized followed by the publication date and the inclusive pages (if any). If the article does not appear on consecutive pages, include only the first page number and a plus (+) sign.
If you accessed the newspaper article from the library's online databases or the web, provide the title of database/website, in which the article is contained, italicised. Conclude the entry with the URL (permalink or stable, if available) where the source can be located.
Online database
Online web
Print format
When you cite a source republished in another form, provide the publication information of the new source. It is optional to conclude the citation with the publication information of the previous publication.
Online database (with different title)
Online database (with the same title)

Click on the collapsible panel to see examples based on the type of source you want to cite and find out how you should form the citation.

When you cite a website, begin the entry with the author's name (if any) reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the title of the website italicized, the publisher of the website (if any) and the date of publication. Conclude the entry with the URL of the website. It is optional to provide the date you accessed the source.
Entire website
Work on a website
If the publisher is a government agency which is part of any organizational units, provide all the names of the units from the largest entity to the smallest.
When you cite a report accessed from the library's databases or the web, begin the entry with the report's author. Continue providing the title of the report italicized. Add the report's number, if there is any, next to the title. Conclude the entry with the title of the database italicized, the report's publication date, and the URL where the report can be located.
Online database
When you cite a dissertation abstract accessed from the library's online databases, begin the entry with the author's name reversed for alphabetizing. Provide the title of dissertation in quotation marks. Add the descriptive label "PhD. dissertation abstract". Continue with the title of dissertation index, italicised. Give the volume and issue numbers, the publication date and the inclusive pages. Conclude the entry with the name of the database italicized and the permalink or stable URL where the source can be located.
Online database
When you cite a dissertation accessed on the web, begin the entry with the name of the author reversed for alphabetizing. Continue with the dissertation's title italicized followed by the year the dissertation was submitted. Proceed with the name of the degree-granting institution followed by the descriptive label "PhD dissertation". Conclude the entry with the online repository (this can be omitted when it is the same with the name of the degree-granting institution) and the URL where the work can be located.
Online web
When you cite a comment posted on a web page begin the entry with the name of the person who made the comment (this can be a pseudonym like an online username). Provide the title of the comment in quotation marks. If the comment has no title start with the descriptive label "Comment on" and provide the title of the work which is commented. Continue with the title of the website italicized followed by date and time it has been posted. Conclude the entry with the URL where the comment can be located.
When you cite an untitled message such as a tweet, begin the entry with the online username of the person who posted the tweet. Provide the text of the message in place of the title without any changes within quotation marks (ignore capitalization rules). Continue with the title of the website italicized followed by date and time it has been posted. Conclude the entry with the URL where the message can be located.
When you cite an interview that you conducted, begin the entry with the name of the person interviewed, then state the kind of interview e.g. "Personal interview." Conclude with the date when the interview has been conducted.
When you cite a film or a television series, begin the entry with the director's name reversed for alphabetising followed by the descriptive label director. Continue with the title of the film/television series italicized. Conclude the entry with the name of the company which produced the film or the television series followed by the year of its original release.
When you cite an episode in a television series, and in your paper you are discussing the episode in a general way, begin the entry with the title of the episode, enclosed in quotation marks. The contributors may of the episode may follow. Otherwise begin the entry with the contributor's name you wish to discuss in your paper, reversed for alphabetising. The name should be followed by a descriptive label such as director, performer, creator. Continue with the title of the television series italicized followed by the season and episode numbers. Proceed with the name of the company which produced the television series followed by the date of its original release. Conclude the entry with the online network on which you found the television series and the URL where the episode can be located.
Online network
When you cite an online video, begin the entry with the creator's name and the title of the video in quotation marks. Continue with the host website, the publisher and the date the video was posted. In case the creator of the video and the publisher is the same, place the name only in the publisher position. Conclude the entry with the URL where the work can be located.

However if you cite an online video which does not have a creator but it has been uploaded on the internet, begin the entry with the the title of the video enclosed in quotation marks. Continue with the host website, the phrase "uploaded by" and the name of the person who uploaded the video. Provide the date the video was posted. Conclude the entry with the URL where the work can be located.


Video created
Video uploaded
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