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APA style

Note! The current APA Citation Guide and all the examples included in it, reflect the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The guide is scheduled to be updated to reflect the recently published 7th edition later in the year. 

Formatting the references

APA provides guidelines on how to format the reference list and how to arrange the entries within it in your research paper.

The bibliographic entries of a reference list follow specific rules in terms of alphabetization, capitalization, italicization, and abbreviations to help you format your citations accurately and consistently. These help you format your citations accurately and consistently.

Click on the collapsible panel to find out more.

Reference entries are placed in alphabetical order. Alphabetize letter by letter by the author's last name or the title of the work when no author is available.
The first word of a title, a subtitle as well as proper nouns are capitalized. Titles of journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters are also capitalized.
Stand-alone titles, such as books, periodicals, reports, films, etc. are italicized. Numbers of volumes following periodical titles are also italicized. Titles that make up parts of a greater whole, such as articles, chapters, blog posts, episodes, etc. are not italicized.
The APA manual suggests the following abbreviations.