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Doing Research

Incorporating text

There are three techniques for incorporating information in your papers.

  • Summarizing: You can rewrite and condense original source material to present main ideas in a narrower, more focused way. It's better if you try to eliminate extra information and simplify a source.
  • Paraphrasing: You can use roughly the same amount of words as the original to restate information without quoting it. You can try to arrange, simplify, or clarify the material and normalize your writing so that all looks the same.
  • Quoting: You can use the exact wording of the original. You can include a quote when another’s words are stronger or better than yours. You can also use quoting to comment on the quoted material or present material for analysis.

Watch these videos to find out more about how to incorporate text in your papers.

Summarizing vs. Paraphrasing

Summarizing and paraphrazing are two techniques for incorporating text in your paper which have similaries as well as differences.

Check the table below to identify these details.

 Summaries    Paraphrases
  • Report your understanding to reader
  • Can be any length
  • Select and condense main ideas and concepts
  • May arrange points in any order
  • Explain, sometimes interpret
  • Should be accurate and complete
  • Report your understanding to reader  
  • Tend to be short
  • Record each point
  • Present points in original order
  • Include no interpretation
  • Should be complete and make sense on their own without misleading or misrepresenting

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